The history of payment methods is almost as dynamic as human history itself. While a few hundred years ago goods were still commonly paid for in gold or silver, the introduction of checks in 1681 and card payments (first charge card in 1914, first credit card in 1958, first debit card in 1978) started an unbroken trend towards making non-cash payments an everyday occurrence and increasingly usual in everyday life.
Since its introduction in the U.S. end of 2014, Apple Pay has recorded a moderate, but steady growth: According to its own figures, around 350 million users in 35 markets now use the card-based payment service from Cupertino - since end of 2018, Germany has also been one of these markets.
Card schemes enable simplified and guaranteed exchange of money between merchants, customers and their banks, by operating international networks and setting uniform standards. More specifically, they define rules for the routing of payment authorizations and settlement requests in point-of-sale and e-commerce transactions between merchant acquirers and card issuers, as well as ATM withdrawals or purchases with cashback transactions.